Mini C-Arm Fluoroscopy: Does Its Configuration Matter for Radiation Exposure to the Surgeon? | Semantic Scholar (2024)

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@article{Chapman2018MiniCF, title={Mini C-Arm Fluoroscopy: Does Its Configuration Matter for Radiation Exposure to the Surgeon?}, author={Talia Chapman and Dennis P. Martin and Christopher Williamson and Brian A. Tinsley and Mark L. Wang and Asif M. Ilyas}, journal={HAND}, year={2018}, volume={13}, pages={552 - 557}, url={}}
  • Talia Chapman, Dennis P. Martin, A. Ilyas
  • Published in HAND 1 September 2018
  • Engineering, Medicine

The model’s hand received almost 1000 times more radiation exposure than all other anatomic sites with statistically greatest radiation exposure sustained in the horizontal position, and eye radiation exposure with the C-arm in the inverted position was also significantly greater.

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The Effect of Metal Instrumentation on Patient and Surgical Team Scatter Radiation Exposure Using Mini C-Arm in a Simulated Forearm Fracture Fixation Model
    Michael T. GrooverJacob R. HinkleyDaniel E. GerowH. Brent BambergerJennifer EvansRoland E. Gazaille

    Medicine, Engineering

    Journal of the American Academy of Orthopaedic…

  • 2019

MI in the field of fluoroscopy increases scatter radiation exposure to a degree that may place the first assistant's yearly eye exposure in excess of the International Commission on Radiological Protection limit.

  • 5
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Radiation exposure to the orthopedic surgeon-a dosimetric comparison of two mini C-arm fluoroscopy models: a pilot study.
    T.H. VernierW. HinsonValentine D Verpaalen


    Journal of the American Veterinary Medical…

  • 2023

Intraoperative radiation exposure from the mini C-arm is low, specifically to areas not protected by lead and in close proximity to the primary x-ray beam, which means surgeons should always practice the principles of ALARA to minimize radiation exposure in the workplace.

Investigating Patient-Level Radiation Exposure in Hand and Wrist Fracture Surgery
    Wen XuA. ChristopherSophia HuD. SteinbergD. BozentkaInes C. Lin

    Medicine, Environmental Science

    Annals of plastic surgery

  • 2022

Patient-level radiation exposure during fluoroscopy-guided hand and wrist procedures is low relative to other common imaging modalities, such as dental radiographs, chest x-rays, and computed tomography scans, and is comparable with less than a few hours of natural background radiation exposure, highlighting the overall safety of this important technology.

Safe usage of Mini 'C'-arm in operating room environment: Implications for clinical practice.
    Jatin NaiduR. BotchuK. Iyengar

    Medicine, Environmental Science

    Journal of perioperative practice

  • 2024

Safe usage of Mini 'C'-arm machine requires a multifaceted approach including operator responsibility and safety, patient protection, equipment maintenance, radiation dose awareness, documentation and sound reporting mechanisms.

Bildgebung bei Kindern und Jugendlichen intraoperativ, bei ausgewählten Frakturen und im Verlauf nach konservativer und operativer Behandlung
    K. DresingFrancisco Fernández R. Kraus


    Die Unfallchirurgie

  • 2021

Abstract The indication for radiographic examinations in pediatric and adolescent trauma patients should follow ALARA (as low as reasonably achievable). Because of the effect of radiation on the

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15 References

Radiation exposure in hand surgery: mini versus standard C-arm.
    G. AthwalR. BuenoS. Wolfe


    The Journal of hand surgery

  • 2005
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Patient and surgeon radiation exposure: comparison of standard and mini-C-arm fluoroscopy.
    B. GiordanoJ. BaumhauerT. MorganG. Rechtine


    The Journal of bone and joint surgery. American…

  • 2009

Exposure of the patient and surgeon to radiation depends on the tissue density and the shape of the imaged extremity, and when it is possible to satisfactorily image an extremity with use of the mini c-arm, it should be chosen over its larger counterpart.

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Hand and body radiation exposure with the use of mini C-arm fluoroscopy.
    C. TuohyDouglas R. WeikertJ. WatsonDonald H. Lee


    The Journal of hand surgery

  • 2011
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Radiation exposure to the hands from mini C-arm fluoroscopy.
    Gordon Singer


    The Journal of hand surgery

  • 2005
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Exposure from the large C-arm versus the mini C-arm using hand/wrist and elbow phantoms.
    Gordon SingerBrent HerronDavid S Herron

    Medicine, Physics

    The Journal of hand surgery

  • 2011
  • 27
Measurements of surgeons’ exposure to ionizing radiation dose: comparison of conventional and mini C-arm fluoroscopy
    K. SungEunki MinC. ChungByung Chae JoM. ParkKisung Lee

    Engineering, Medicine

    The Journal of hand surgery, European volume

  • 2016

The results show that the equivalent scattered radiation doses to the surgeon’s susceptible organs and the direct radiation dose to a patients’ hand can be decreased significantly by using a mini C-arm rather than a conventional C-arms.

  • 16
Fluoroscopic radiation exposure: are we protecting ourselves adequately?
    C. HoferA. Ilyas


    The Journal of bone and joint surgery. American…

  • 2015

Surgeons' hands receive the most radiation exposure during distal radial plate fixation under fluoroscopy, and routine protective equipment is recommended to mitigate exposure to surgeons' hands and eyes, in addition to the thyroid, chest, groin, and groin, during fluorideoscopy procedures.

  • 27
The Effect of C-Arm Position on Radiation Exposure During Fixation of Pediatric Supracondylar Fractures of the Humerus.
    Raymond Y. HsuC. LareauJeom Soon KimSarath C. KoruproluC. BornJonathan R. Schiller


    The Journal of bone and joint surgery. American…

  • 2014

Neither C-arm configuration-with the image intensifier serving as the operating surface or with the images intensifier positioned above a radiolucent hand table-was shown to be clearly safer for pediatric supracondylar humeral fracture fixation.

  • 25
Radiation exposure with use of the mini-C-arm for routine orthopaedic imaging procedures.
    B. BadmanL. RillBradley ButkovichM. ArreolaR. V. Griend


    The Journal of bone and joint surgery. American…

  • 2005

The mini-c-arm device should be utilized whenever feasible in order to eliminate many of the concerns associated with use of the large c- arm device, specifically those related to cumulative radiation hazards, positioning considerations, relative distance from the beam, and the need for protective shielding.

  • 93
Radiation exposure to hand surgeons' hands: a practical comparison of large and mini C-arm fluoroscopy.
    Michael VosbikianA. IlyasDerek D WatsonC. Leinberry


    The Journal of hand surgery

  • 2014
  • 32



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    Mini C-Arm Fluoroscopy: Does Its Configuration Matter for Radiation Exposure to the Surgeon? | Semantic Scholar (2024)


    Mini C-Arm Fluoroscopy: Does Its Configuration Matter for Radiation Exposure to the Surgeon? | Semantic Scholar? ›

    No significant difference was found to radiation exposure to the thyroid, chest, and groin between the 3 configurations, and relatively low levels of radiation were observed throughout. Figure 4. Relative to the configuration of the mini C-arm beam, hand radiation exposure was greatest in the horizontal position.

    What is the radiation exposure to the hands from mini C-arm fluoroscopy? ›

    This study does suggest that use of the mini C-arm in hand surgery is safe, exposing the hand surgeon to minimal radiation. Assuming worst-case scenario, that each ring measured 29 mrem (just below the threshold), the surgeon's hands experienced at most 2.7 mrem per case.

    Does fluoroscopy expose you to radiation? ›

    Contrast dye moves through the catheter into the blood vessels. The fluoroscopy shows how the blood moves through the vessels and allows the healthcare provider to locate any blockages. Fluoroscopy procedures involve exposure to ionizing radiation that can slightly increase the risk of developing cancer later in life.

    Which position of the C-arm results in the most radiation exposure to the surgeon's head? ›

    Position of the C Arm - The intensity of scatter radiation is the maximum in backward direction in orthopaedic procedures. The amount of scatter radiation to the surgeon is maximum in horizontal fluoroscopy and that is why it was proposed that the beam should be directed from medial to lateral direction [16,19].

    How much radiation does a C-arm emit? ›

    With ionising radiation produced by a standard C-arm, this is roughly equal to equivalent doses of 0.113 μSv per lateral image and 0.043 μSv per PA image 16. Keenan et al. 26 found even lower levels in a simulated manipulation of a child's forearm using a manikin with scatter properties similar to human tissue.

    What is employed to reduce exposure during C-arm fluoroscopy? ›

    Lead aprons, lead gloves, lead neck or thyroid shields, lead eyeglasses, lead drapes, and lead glass barriers help reduce radiation exposure for personnel. A lead barrier of 0.25-mm lead equivalent thickness typically stops 90% of x-rays, and a 0.5-mm lead equivalent apron typically absorbs 97% of x-rays.

    What is the maximum exposure rate for fluoroscopy? ›

    Uncertified fluoroscopic equipment is limited to a maximum exposure rate of 10 R/min. The fluoroscopic exposure rate in automatic and/or manual mode must not exceed 5 R/min when measured with a patient equivalent phantom composed of 1 inches of Type 1100 aluminum and 0.5 mm of copper or an equivalent device.

    Are surgeons exposed to radiation? ›

    Surgical staff members may be repeatedly exposed to low levels of ionizing radiation over the course of their careers. Adverse health effects, such as cancer, may occur years following such exposure.

    How to reduce radiation exposure in fluoroscopy? ›

    Minimization of fluoroscopy time has been proven to be one of the most effective ways of reducing radiation dose to the patient and staff during fluoroscopy. Experience has shown that a substantial reduction in patient dose may be achieved by limiting the fluoroscopy time.

    How much radiation does a radiologist get exposed to? ›

    The researchers found that the average occupational dose per year across all types of staff was 0.48 mSv; it was 0.6 mSv for radiologic technologists. They also found that the effective dose for radiologists and technologists were 0.74 and 3.76 mSv, respectively.

    How far from C-arm is safe? ›

    What Is a Safe Distance When Using a Mini C-Arm? The rule of thumb is to maintain as much distance as feasibly possible. Radiation intensity decreases exponentially with distance. In general, standing 3.5 feet (around 1 meter) away from the source can reduce radiation exposure by about 90%.

    What is the difference between C-arm and fluoroscopy? ›

    While radiography and fixed fluoroscopy machines produce static images, C-arm machines provide real-time imaging during procedures. This makes them invaluable in surgeries where precision is crucial.

    What part of the human body is most sensitive to radiation? ›

    Lymphocytes (white blood cells) and cells which produce blood are constantly regenerating, and are, therefore, the most sensitive. Reproductive and gastrointestinal cells are not regenerating as quickly and are less sensitive.

    Do surgeons wear lead? ›

    Surgeons wear lead aprons or other protective gear, such as lead gloves and thyroid shields, in certain medical procedures involving X-ray or fluoroscopy. The reason for this protective gear is to shield the surgeon from exposure to ionizing radiation, which can be harmful in high doses.

    Does radiation come from the top or bottom of the C-arm? ›

    Radiation from a C-arm machine primarily emanates directly from the X-ray tube and indirectly from the patient as scattered radiation. The X-ray tube is housed in the bottom of the C-arm, while scattering occurs when X-rays interact with the patient's tissues during procedures.

    What are the majority of fluoroscopy radiation injuries from? ›

    During a typical fluoroscopic procedure, the skin radiation dose is between 2 and 5 rad/min (0.02 and 0.05 Gy/min). However, doses as high as 5 rad/min (0.5 Gy/min) have been documented. As in the present case, most of the reported cases of FICRD are due to cardiac procedures.

    What is the major source of radiation to personnel during fluoroscopy? ›

    Radiation exposure comes from 3 major sources in the fluoroscopic suite, including the primary X-ray beam and leakage and scattered X-ray beams.

    How to protect personnel from radiation of C-arm fluoro in the operating room? ›

    The most common 0.5 mm lead equivalent aprons used by the staff during fluoroscopy attenuate 95% of the scattered radiation to the shielded torso, vs 80% for the lightweight 0.25 mm aprons. After a lead apron, leaded thyroid shields and eyeglasses provide additional protection in descending order.

    Is fluoroscopy more radiation than CT? ›

    Overall, physicians' radiation exposure was 3.7 to 10 times lower during CT-guided spinal injections than it was during fluoroscopy-guided injections (P<0.03).


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